A fundamental aspect of the investment landscape involves understanding a range of investment concepts. Are you acquainted with the significance of diversification in investment, or the meanings behind terms like bear and bull markets, volatility, blue chips, and hedging?

  • Stocks: These are securities that signify ownership of a share in a particular publicly-traded company. Investing in stocks offers individuals the opportunity to partake in a company's ownership and profits. As a company's value rises, so does the worth of its stocks, allowing investors to potentially sell them at a higher price than their purchase cost, thus realizing a profit. Shareholders also possess the right to benefit from profits through dividends and to vote at general meetings.

  • Credit Rating: This reflects a company's credibility and stability, denoted by letters such as AAA to D. Prominent rating agencies include Standard & Poor's (S&P), Moody's, and Fitch. An AAA rating signifies minimal risk, while D indicates high risk. Riskier investments may yield better returns but are also more susceptible to losses.

  • Profitability: This metric indicates the relationship between profit and the capital invested, calculated as profit divided by equity, multiplied by 100 (%). Various forms of profitability exist, including asset, equity, cost, sales, and long-term capital profitability.

  • Solvency: Solvency expresses a company's ability to meet its financial obligations, signifying its capability to pay.

  • Liquidity: Liquidity denotes how swiftly assets can be converted into cash. A low liquidity ratio implies a company's incapability to meet its financial obligations promptly. Conversely, a high liquidity ratio indicates a company's ability to fulfill its obligations punctually, although it might reduce profitability.

  • Volatility: This measure reveals the degree of price fluctuation in a given financial instrument. High volatility indicates rapid and substantial price changes, indicating elevated risk but potentially higher returns. Conversely, low volatility indicates greater stability but generally lower profits.
Investment terminology

Zdroj: stock.adobe.com

  • Securities: These encompass a variety of financial instruments such as stocks, bonds, bills of exchange, share certificates, treasury bills, and cheques. Issuers utilize these securities to raise the required capital, offering opportunities for investors to appreciate their investments.

  • Hedging: It is an investment strategy employed to mitigate risk. It involves establishing opposing positions or trades to offset the risks associated with the original investment asset. Common instruments for hedging include futures contracts, options, swaps, and forward contracts, permitting investors to manage and diminish portfolio risk.

  • Blue Chips: These refer to stocks of large, established companies known for their stability and high liquidity. The term "blue chip" originates from early poker chips, which were dark blue and denoted the highest value and significant betting capability.

  • Beta: It measures a stock's volatility concerning market-wide movements. A beta above 1 implies higher volatility, while a beta below 1 signifies lower volatility.

  • Diversification: This strategy aims to minimize investment risk by spreading investments across various types, reducing the potential for losses.

  • Broker: Intermediaries who facilitate the buying and selling of shares. They act as go-betweens connecting investors with the stock exchange.

  • Bear Market: This term characterizes a prolonged decrease in investment prices, often when there is a decline of 20% or more from recent highs, offering an opportunity for investors to purchase stocks.

  • Bull Market: This phase signifies an upward trend in the market, typically marked by an increase of 20% or more from previous lows or record highs, compelling investors to either retain stocks with the anticipation of further gains or to sell..